ParnellIs a suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. It is often billed as Auckland's "oldest suburb" since it dates from the earliest days of the European settlement of Auckland in 1841. To its west lies the Auckland Domain, to the south Newmarket, and to the north the commercial area of St Georges Bay with mainly office-space.
Parnell Rise and Parnell Road make up the main road through Parnell. Parnell Rise leads to the central business district to the west; Parnell Road runs from Parnell Rise uphill to the top of the suburb, and then bends almost 90 degrees and continues towards Newmarket in the south-east. Parnell Road ends at the intersection of George and Sarawia Streets, where it becomes Broadway. Early European settlers knew Parnell Road as "Manukau Road" until well after the formation of Khyber Pass (or Khyber Pass Road) in 1845.
Parnell was named after Samuel Duncan Parnell, who is credited with the establishment of the Eight-hour day in New Zealand.
The Borough of Parnell, established in 1877, was amalgamated into the Auckland City Council area in 1913 or in 1915. The Parnell Road Board administered the area before the Borough was established.
While Parnell has so far never had a dedicated train station, it is planned to construct a new station near the Mainline Steam Depot at the west of the Parnell shops area, north of the Parnell Tunnel, which has been located under the suburbs since 1873.
Notable buildings and landmarks
Lower Parnell Road
- The Swan Hotel, 31-35 Parnell Rise. Constructed prior to 1856 and is one of the earliest timber public houses surviving in Auckland. Additions to the building date from the 1880s and were designed by Edward Bartley. This building originally stood directly on the foreshore. Historically this cove (now completely reclaimed) had been used by Maori to beach their waka; this usage continued after European settlement and part of the forehore was demarkated as a Maori hostel (currently used as a testing circuit for police cars).
- Parnell Rail Bridge. 19th century metal rail bridge on massive volcanic basalt rock piers. This structure allows the railline to cross over Parnell Road without disrupting traffic.
- Mayfair Apartments - 1930s brick Neo-Georgian highrise apartment block.
- Anglican Bishop of Auckland. Every bishop since George Selwyn has resided in the Palace; Bishops Court in St Stephen's Ave or Neligan House next door.
- Reverend John Kinder Anglican clergyman, watercolourist and early photographer. Kinder Cottage, Ayr Street
- Reverend Vicesimus Lush (1817-1882) and his wife Blanche in 1863-64. Ewelme Cottage Ayr Street.
- Sir Fredrick Whitaker - Lawyer and New Zealand Premier - Built the house now known as Hulme Court.
- Sir Francis Dillon Bell - Minister of Native Affairs and advisor to Governor Grey - resided at Hulme Court.
- Captain Thomas Sparrow Carmichael (1825-1900) - 66 St Georges Bay Road.
- Sir John Logan Campbell and Lady Campbell - lived on Gladstone road, the house Killbryde was demolished in 1924 and the land incorporated in the Parnell Rose Gardens.
- Colonial Architecture In New Zealand. John Stacpoole. A.H & A.W Reed 1976.
- Decently And In Order, The Centennial History of the Auckland City Council. G.W.A Bush. Collins 1971.
- Auckland Through A Victorian Lens. William Main. Millwood Press, 1977.
- Auckland's Original Shoreline. Dr Neride Campbell. Heart of the City 2005.
- The Lively Capital, Auckland 1840–1865. Una Platts. Avon Fine Prints Limited New Zealand 1971.